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Spinning & Weaving
  Developments in comber, speed frame & ring frame

Combers, speed frames and ring frames have gone through such major changes that today they meet not only the requirements of the manufacturers but also the demands of consumers, say Reeti Pal Singh and V K Kothari.

The comber has undergone a lot of changes. Consequently, the speed as well as the quality of the combed sliver and hence yarn is improved a lot. Following are the significant modern developments in comber.

Change in the kinematics to increase nips/min

Most of the latest models of combers are able to run at higher speed. The reason behind this higher speed, apart from others things, is better manipulation of the comber technology, kinematics and air control.

Rieter Combers E 65/E 75 with Computer Aided Process Development

Rieter has developed computer programmes entitled C A P D+ (subsequently C A P D 500), ie, Computer Aided Process Development, for the optimisation of combing process[1]. Through this programme, elements involve in the combing process were recalculated, optimised and checked for feasibility in several billion computer operations and simulated precisely (Figure1 a). The optimised combing elements and sequences of motion enable nip rates 450 nips/min[2]. The higher nip/min rather reduces load on detaching roller drive (Figure 1 b). The process improvements boost the efficiency and the productivity of the machine and increase MTBA value (Mean time between assists, ie, average time between two unscheduled stoppages) as shown in Figure 1 c.

Trützschler Comber TCO 1

Similarly Trützschler has redesigned the comber frame for the dynamic load that results into (Comber TCO 1) 500 nips/min. The special software simulates the dynamic loads during the running process and then individual frame components are exactly designed for these alternating loads[3]. This gives sound frame structure without vibrations, impact loads or uncontrolled distortions even at 500 nips/min. Optimised kinematics also lead to lower mechanical work and lower losses through friction and vibrations that consequently lower down the power and energy consumption (Figure 2). Magnesium-aluminium alloys are used to make nippers lighter that reduce vibrations and noise level substantially.

Marzoli Comber CM600N

Marzoli also claims that comber CM600N can run at 480 nips/min. This becomes possible due to new kinematics of the nipper unit that reduces the closing speed of the nipper jaws, thus giving slowest force of impact during closing of jaws. The comber frame has been redesigning using 3D-CAD software. This leads to considerable reduction in the mechanicals stresses and machine noise, thus the operation becomes smooth without vibrations and heavy shocks[4].

Link mechanism for detaching Motion of Toyota VC5A Comber

Toyota also claims that light weight aluminium differential arm along with improved 'Cam-less Mechanism Link Motion' for detaching roller derive reduces amount of inertia in detaching motion and enhances operational speed (Figure 3)[5].

Concentric synchronise movement of the nippers

The combing will be better if the bottom nipper lower surface remains at fixed set distance from the bottom comb during the entire circular combing. This is achieved by using the standing pendulum principle (Figure 4). The Rieter E 65/E 75 comber, Trützschler Comber TCO 1, Marzoli Comber CM600N are equipped with concentric synchronise nippers movement.

Toyota Comber with 6'' combing cylinder diameter as compared to 5''

In contrast to concentric nippers movements, Toyota VC5A Comber keeps cylinder gauge wide, at the start of the combing (Figure 5 a) and afterward it is kept constant (min) [5]. It is argued that at the start of the combing sufficient combing is given to fleece by the longer needle length, thus the distance should be wider. It has also 6" combing cylinder dia as compared to 5" (Figure 5 b).

Reducing the clamping distance

By reducing clamping distance, long fibres going into the waste can be avoided (Figure 6 a). If this distance is wide, fibre control during combing is hampered, thus deteriorates combing efficiency (Figure 6 b). Rieter comber has designed this area to keep this distance minimum[6].

Self-cleaning top comb

The top-combs, during operation, get loaded with short fibres and impurities. Thus, the machine is stopped intermittently for cleaning and results into production loss. Trützschler comber is equipped with self-cleaning top combs (Figure 7). An extremely short compressed air blast of a few milliseconds purges the needles from top to bottom and detaches the adhering fibres. The cleaning frequency can be adapted to the respective degree of soiling. Similarly Rieter also provides 'Ri-Q-Top' top-comb with high self cleaning effect[7].

Easy setting of nipper gauge

Toyota VC5A Comber offers one-point adjustment for nipper gauge as shown in Figure 8 a. Thus it can be easily adjusted by moving top comb back and forth to align with setting gauge. Hence it is not required to adjust nipper pivot gauge and check cylinder gauge (Figure 8 b).

VARIOspeed at Lap winding machine

VARIOspeed (optional) of Rieter UNIlap E 32 enables adjustment of the lap speed to the lap diameter during the entire lap build-up[8]. This ensures consistent lap quality along with higher production rates (Figure 9). Similarly, OMEGA lap winding technology is a belt tension and pressure system that encompasses the lap on a circumferential area ranging from 180° to 270° from start to full lap (Figure 10). The uniform pressure distributed through this principle, allows constant production speeds of 180 m/min (max) and results in no drift, hence lower CV[9].

Constant Lap weight (g/m) during lap build-up

In Trützschler Superlap TSL 1, the draft, speed and pressure are manipulated in such a way that the lap g/m is kept constant through out the lap build (Figure 11 a, b). Similarly on Marzoli LW2N lap winding machine, all the above parameters are adjusted to keep lap count constant through out the lap build. The 'Automatic grain adjuster' of Toyota Lap former, adjusts the set grain (weight) of the lap from start to the end to maintain constant lap g/m as shown in Figure 12[12].

Developments in speed-frame

The speed frame is the machine that has gone least change. This can be realised fromm the fact that a spindle speed of 1,500 rpm as on date as compared to 600 rpm in 1950s. Still there are certain changes that have been carried out for better production and quality like, increase in the roving bobbin diameter from 4" to 7" and lift from 8" to 16", use of straight cone drum instead of hyperbolic cone drum for better control over the roving tension etc. Now all closed (AC Type) flyers are used to overcome the problem of air drag on roving.

These flyers are aerodynamically balanced and are of light weight. The roving frames are equipped with auto doffing system that, apart from avoiding man handling, reduces doffing time (Figure 13)[11]. Even the Toyota claims to have auto doffing on FL100 roving frame in record time of 3½ minutes. Roving bobbins auto doffing and transportation, to the ring spinning through over head rails, becomes a standard feature of the roving frame. Apart from above, some of the developments those are really significant will be discussed in subsequent sections.

Equal roving geometry for front and back row roving

Deposition of roving spindles in two rows leads to variation in roving twist and count in front and back row due to different level of twist attained by roving in front and back row. This is due to change in roving path geometry (Figure 14 a). Modern speed frames have raised flyer top of the back row as compared to the front row to maintain the roving delivery angle (Figure 14 b). Rieter F15/F35 [12] roving frame, Zinser 668 roving frame[13], Marzoli FTN roving frame[14] and Lakshmi LFS 1660 speed frame[15] incorporate this development in their machines.

Individual motor drive

In multi-motor drive system, drafting rollers, flyers, bobbins and bobbin rail are driven directly by individual servomotors and are synchronised throughout package build by the control system (Figure 15). The advantages of this system are like, no need of heavy counter weight for bobbin rail balancing and differential gear, reduced maintenance, lower energy consumption, etc. All machine manufacturers incorporate four-motor-drive system except Toyota that uses three servomotors on FL100 roving frame. One motor for drafting system and flyer while one motor each for bobbin drive and bobbin rail [16].

Roving tension sensors

Roving tension sensors measure and control the roving tension (constant) through out the bobbin build. These tension sensors do not actually contact the roving while measuring the tension (Figure 16). The tension is measured at periodic intervals and the required change in tension is actuated by changing the bobbin speed through servomotor. Rieter F15/F35 roving frame, Zinser 668 roving frame, Marzoli FTN roving frame, Lakshmi LFS 1660 speed frame and Toyota FL100 roving frame [16] have incorporated roving tension sensor on their machines.

Developments in ring frame

The ring frame has under significant changes. One of the most innovative developments that have been incorporated on this machine is compact spinning. The authors have discussed in detail different methods of spinning compact yarn in the paper titled 'Different technologies to spin compact yarn' [17]. The other significant modern developments will be discussed in subsequent section.

Tackling spindle underwindings Rieter SERVOgrip

The yarn has to wind several times around the lower end of the spindle to hold it in the spinning position at the time of doffing. These underwindings often cause multiples end down and lead to fibre fly when machine is restarted after doffing. SERVOgrip is a system of doffing ring cop without the underwinding threads. The main element of the SERVOgrip is a patented clamping crown. At time of doffing the ring rail moved downward and the clamping crown gets open while the spindle is still revolving slowly (Figure 17). The yarn gets inserted in the open crown and the crown gets closed afterward. When the cop is replaced, the length of the yarn remains firmly clamped, enabling piecing after machine is started[18].

Marzoli Wondercleaner for cleaning underwind

Marzoli rather uses a wonder cleaner to remove the underwind. Wondercleaner is an overhead cleaner with suction unit (Figure 18). This removes underwind only when the ring rail has reached certain minimum height.

Changes in spinning geometry and drafting components Zinser optimised spinning geometry

Zinser has claimed that the yarn path has been made short, thus causes less disturbance to twist transmission as compared with a long thread run as shown in Figure 19 a[19]. The programme controlled motor gives drive to yarn guiding element consequently bobbin build can also be pre-programmed from the control panel by setting winding length, traverse length and ring rail upward displacement (Figure 19 b). The traversing yarn guide remains at standstill at the start of the bobbin build operation for effective adaptation to the spinning tension (Figure 19 c) that results into constant yarn tension[20].

Toyota optimises spinning geometry

The reduction in stretch length and higher spinning angle (Figure 20 a) on Toyota RX240 NEW ring frame results into high-speed due to better twist propagation and stable ballooning with reduced yarn breakage [21]. Similarly balloon control ring that moves together with the lappet at the start of winding and then with the ring from about 40% cop winding leads to stable balloon form (Figure 20 b).

Marzoli different winding geometry for different tube length

Similarly, depending upon the tube length, the spinning angle on Marzoli MPN ring frame is optimised for better running condition as shown in Figure 21[22]. The distance between the BC ring, delivery angle, lappet and ring rail has been also optimised.

Suessen ACP cradle and top roller loading via, spring plate

Suessen Active Cradle with special Pinspacer (ACP) is able to improve the yarn quality (Figure 22 a). The sector length of 15 or 20 mm, in the drafting system, where the inter-fibre friction is minimum, do not able to guide short fibres (Figure 22 b). The Pinsapcer of ACP deflects the fibre in this zone thereby increases the friction field of the front roller nipping line towards the cradle as shown in Figure 22 c[23]. The tendency of the fibre spread is suppressed along with improvement in fibre orientation and extension consequently improves overall regularity and strength of the yarn. The top rollers are also loaded directly by plate springs (Figure 23). The force of the springs is carried over to the top rollers without the use of any moving part and therefore involves no friction. The pre-tension of the spring can be changed by a cam at the front weighting unit to adjust the load[24].

Monitoring systems Rieter Individual Spindle Monitoring (ISM)

Individual Spindle Monitoring (ISM) is a quality monitoring system[25]. This system reports faults and anomalies by means of a 3-level light guidance system thus enable personnel to locate the problem spindles without unnecessary searches (Figure 24). Signal lamps at the end of the machine indicate the side of the machine on which the ends down rate has been exceeded (Level 1). An extra-bright LED on each section guides the operator to the location of the fault (Level 2). The indicator on the spindle itself signals ends down with a continuous light and slipping spindles with a flashing light (Level 3).

Zinser GUARD system (RovingGuard and FilaGuard)

The individual yarn monitor FilaGuard monitors the rotation of the steel ring travellers on each spindle and detects any yarn break immediately (Figure 25 a). Optical signals indicate the specific yarn break, directing the operating personnel to the spindle of yarn break to rectify the problem[26]. The automatic roving stop RovingGuard, which responses within milliseconds, interrupts the roving feed in case of yarn break thereby prevents material loss and minimise lapping tendency (Figure 25 b).

Multi-motor drive system Rieter FLEXIdraft

FLEXIdraft flexible drive, equipped on Rieter G 33 ring spinning machine, features separate drives for the drafting system and the spindles. This system enables change in the yarn count, twist and twist direction (S/Z) via, the control panel of the machine. The drafting rollers are split in the centre of the machine to ensure smooth running of drafting operation[27]. On the basis of FLEXIdraft, each drafting system drive can be started or stopped individually via, FLEXIstart system (Figure 26). Thus depending on machine length, 1-sided or 2-sided drafting system drives are used[28]. FLEXIdraft has a further advantage of noise level reduction due to elimination gear wheels.

Zinser SynchroDrive, SynchroDraft and ServoDraft

Zinser SychroDrive is a multi-motor tangential belt drive system[29]. The system employed several motors arranged at defined positions to drive spindles through tangential belt (Figure 27 a). The consistency in spindles speed relative to each other minimizes the twist variation apart from reduction in noise level and minimum power requirement [30]. SynchroDraft transmission is for long machines to drive the middle bottom rollers from both ends, consequently minimizes twist variation between gear end and off end of the machine (Figure 27 b). Zinser ServoDraft system employs individual motors for driving bottom rollers of the drafting system. Hence yarn count and twist change can be done by simply feeding required parameters at the control panel of the machine that adjust the motors speed accordingly[31].

Toyota ElectroDraft® System

The Toyota ElectroDraft® System (optional) features independent servo motors drive for front and back rollers. The spindles are also driven by separate tangential drive system where one motor drives 96 spindles[32]. Thus the required draft and yarn twist can be set via, control panel.

Marzoli multi-motor drive system

Marzoli MPN ring frame also equipped with multi-motors drive system. The main motor drives the spindles whereas the ring rail along with thread guide and BC rings are driven from another brushless motor. The drafting rollers have two separate drives (one on each side of the frame) consequently required draft, yarn twist and cop build parameters can be set via, machine control panel.

Toyota Servo motor-driven positive lifting mechanism

Toyota's proprietary screw shaft positive lifting mechanism is used to on RX240 NEW ring for ring rail lifting motion [21]. This eliminates disparity in the ring rail motion during long periods of continuous operation. The different cop parameters like chase length, cop diameter, winding start position, bobbin diameter (bottom and top), total lift, etc, can be fed via, key operation of the machine panel.

Fancy yarn and core spun yarn spinning Rieter VARIOspin for fancy yarns and Rieter ring-spun core yarns

Rieter VARIOspin (optional) is a fancy yarn production system incorporated on ring frame (Rieter G33) and compact ring frame (Rieter K44). Windows-based VARIOspinData PC software is used to transfer fancy yarn data to the machine control system via, the RS 232 interface[33]. The change between fancy yarn and standard yarn is effected via, the machine control system thus no need of complicated retrofitting is required. The various yarn effects that can be achieved with VARIOspin are given in Table 1. Similarly ring-spun core yarn can be spun on Rieter ring spinning and ComforSpin machines[34]. Integration of the filament is done by the additional roving guide in the break draft zone through high-precision guidance in the compacting zone on the K 45 machine (Figure 28). The feeding of the core filament can be adjusted accurately via, the feed roller and in case of a filament break the roving stop motion interrupts roving feed immediately.

Zinser two-fold ply yarn and core spun yarn

Zinser offers to spin two ply twisted yarn (SiroSpun option) at the ring spinning machine [35]. In SiroSpun process, two rovings are fed in parallel through the drafting system and are only combined after the front rollers nip point (Figure 29). Similarly hard and soft core-spun yarn (hard: Non-elastic, but high-tensile component in core and soft: Elastic component in core) can also be spun with CoreSpun system on Zinser ring spinning machines. The core-spun yarn can be spun with the little modifications and additional elements in the creel and drafting system of ring frame (Figure 30). Similarly, Multicount, Multitwist and other fancy yarn can be spun via, a software tool named FancyDesigner through FancyDraft. The FancyDesigner generates the production data for ring spinning machine directly from the design. The Zinser memory card can transfer the design data from one machine to another.

Toyota Electro-draft system (E-draft) to spin fancy yarn

Similarly, Toyota electro-draft system (E-Draft) is used to spin fancy yarn like multislub, multicount and multitwist on ring frame[36].

Marzoli fancy and slub yarn

Multi-motors drive system of Marzoli ring frame enables to spin fancy yarn like, slub, multi-twist or multicount, etc. The yarn contains controlled irregularities in term of thickness and twist variation can be actuated by moving bottom rollers at different speed via, a microcontroller. Marzoli MPN ring frame is also capable to process core spun yarn.

Suessen two ply and core spun yarn

Suessen incorporates devices under different trade names to spin two ply and core-spun yarn on compact ring frame. The EliTwist® spinning method combines compact spinning and twisting of a yarn to get two-ply compact ring spun yarn. The EliCore® is the trade name given to spin core-spun on compact ring frame[37]. EliCore®-rigid is for core-spun yarn with low elastic elongation but high strength filament in core whereas EliCore®-elastic is for high elongation and stand strength filament in core. EliCoreTwist® is trade name given to spin two-ply (SIRO) compact ring spun yarn[38]. SUESSEN has redesigned the core-spun yarn (EliCore® and EliCoreTwist®) under the trade name COREflex®. This attachment works irrespective of the type of top weighting arm used and gives jerk- free movement to the traverse motion of fibre strand and filament. The filament feed roller is independently adjustable in two planes without touching the front top roller. Setting of tension draft and traverse motion is made at a central control panel[39].

Other developments

Zinser OptiStep and OptiStart

OptiStep is a system of adjusting spindle speed in 10 different ranges through out the cop build on Zinser ring spinning machines. The start-up, tip and main spinning speeds can be defined with a 10 point speed curve[40]. Similarly OptiStart (optional) is a running-in programme for ring travellers to perform the running-in phases of the ring travellers with precise accuracy up to production speed. Hence the traveller service life is substantially extended.

Zinser OptiMove

Zinser uses separate electric roving guide drive OptiMove to traverse the roving guide [41]. This is claimed that top rollers wear is reduced and service life is increased significantly (Figure 31). The roving guide drive can be easily set using inductive proximity switches.

Marzoli twin traverse method

A double traverse motion for the roving guide used by Marzoli covers the wider area over the cots and consequently increases the cots and apron life (Figure 32).


The task of the ring frame and other machines is not just to produce quality product, but must have the flexibility to handle the ever-increasing needs of the consumer market. Keeping this in mind, the machine manufacturers are, to a large extent, able to fulfill the demands of the customer.


1.Bert Rusch: Computer Aided Optimisation of the Combing Process - Results in Practice, NCUTE- Programme on Latest Textile Machinery Used Globally, D K T E, Ichalkaranji.
2. E62, E72: Benchmarks in Combing, Rieter Textile System, Information brochure.
3. TCO 1 Comber, Trützschler GmbH & Co KG Textilmaschinenfabrik, Information brochure.
4. Comber CM600N, Marzoli Spa, Information brochure.
5. Toyota VC5A High Speed Comber, Toyota Textile Machinery Division, Information brochure.
6. Combing System, Rieter Textile System, Information brochure.
7. Rieter Parts - More Than Original Spare Parts, Link -- The customer magazine of Rieter Spun Yarn Systems, Vol 15/No: 40 Sept 2003.
8. UNIlap E 32: The Preparation for High Performance Combers, Rieter Textile System, Information brochure.
9. OMEGAlap E 35: Revolutionary Lap Winding Technology, Rieter Textile System, Information brochure.
10. Toyota Super Lap Former Model SL100, Toyota Textile Machinery Division, Information brochure.
11. Zinser 670 RoWeMat: Roving Frame with Integrated Doffer, Zinser Textilmaschinen GmbH, Information brochure.
12. Roving Frame F 15/F 35: The Solution for Your Spinning Preparation, Rieter Textile System, Information brochure.
13. Zinser 668: The Roving Frame Solution for Simplified Setting and More Flexibility, Zinser Textilmaschinen GmbH, Information brochure.
14. Spinning Section: Roving Frame FTN, Marzoli Spa, Italy, Information brochure.
15. Spinning Value: Speed Frame LFS 1660, Lakshmi Machine Works Ltd, Information brochure.
16. Toyota Roving Frame FL100, Toyota Textile Machinery Division, Information brochure.
17. Reeti Pal Singh, V K Kothari: Different Technologies to Spin Compact Yarn, The Indian Textile Journal, Aug, 2007, pp 33-39.
18. Ring Spinning Machine G 33: Doffing Without Underwinding, Rieter Textile System Information brochure.
19. Zinser 668: The Roving Frame Solution for Simplified Setting and More Flexibility, Zinser Textilmaschinen GmbH, Information brochure.
20. Zinser 450: Optimum Quality for Worsted Spinning, Zinser Textilmaschinen GmbH, Information brochure.
21. Ring Spinning Frame: RX240 NEW, Toyota Textile Machinery Division, Information brochure.
22. Spinning Section: Roving Frame FTN, Ring Spinning Frame MPN', Marzoli Spa, Information brochure.
23.Yarn Quality Improved by ACP Quality Package, Spinnovation -- Customer magazine for spinning mills of Spindelfabrik Suessen, No: 24, July 2008.
24. Top Weighting Arms for Ring Spinning Frames, Spinnovation -- Customer magazine for spinning mills of Spindelfabrik Suessen, No: 22, July 2006.
25. ISM - Individual Spindle Monitoring: Online Monitoring at Every Spindle, Rieter Textile System, Information brochure.
26. Zinser FilaGuard and Zinser RovingGuard: Production Monitoring System for Maximum Efficiency and Material Economy, Zinser Textilmaschinen GmbH, Information brochure.
27. Ring Spinning Machine G 33: Experience in Quality and Flexibility, Rieter Textile System, Information brochure.
28. Ring Spinning Machines - Customer-oriented Further Development, Link -- The customer magazine of Rieter Spun Yarn Systems Volume 17/No: 45, May 2005.
29. Zinser 450: Optimum Quality for Worsted Spinning, Zinser Textilmaschinen GmbH, Information brochure.
30. Zinser RM 350: The Longest Ring Spinning Machine Worldwide, Zinser Textilmaschinen GmbH, Information brochure.
31. Zinser 351: Flexibility and Efficiency, Zinser Textilmaschinen GmbH, Information brochure.
32. The Long Staple Ring Spinning Frame RXW, Toyota Textile Machinery Division, Information brochure.
33. Flexibility in Ring Spinning: VARIOspin - Fancy Yarn, Rieter Textile System, Information brochure.
34. Ring-spun Core Yarn System: Made-to-measure Yarn Production, Rieter Textile System, Information brochure.
35. Zinser CoreSpun: The System that Covers Filament Yarn with Staple Fibres, Zinser Textilmaschinen GmbH, Information brochure.
36.Toyota Press Release, September 2005.
37. EliCore and EliCoreTwist - Production of Compact Core Yarns, Spinnovation -- Customer magazine for spinning mills of Spindelfabrik Suessen, No: 21, April 2005.
38. EliTwist -- Three Years after Market Introduction, Spinnovation -- Customer magazine for spinning mills of Spindelfabrik Suessen, No: 22, July 2006.
39. COREflex®-Spinning Soft Core-Yarn on Ring and Compact Spinning Machines, Spinnovation --Customer magazine for spinning mills of Spindelfabrik Suessen, No: 24, July 2008.
40. Zinser Control Technology: Proven in Practice and Easy to Use, Zinser Textilmaschinen GmbH, Information brochure.
41. Zinser Modular Concept 351: Acting Flexibly in the Market - CompACT3 and Classic, Oerlikon Schlafhorst Textile GmbH & Co KG, Information brochure.

Reeti Pal Singh Department of Textile Engineering, GZS College of Engg and Technology, Bathinda 151001. V K Kothari Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016.

published May , 2009
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