The trend in Indian spinning mills is
now to replace manual bale opener with automatic bale opener, and carding
and draw frames have also gone through an evolution in the last one decade.
So, what are the changes that have happened in these pre-spinning
departments? Reeti Pal Singh and V K Kothari highlight the developments.
The conventional short staple spinning
system involves different machines to convert raw cotton to quality yarn.
The quality of a yarn is judged by many parameters, like evenness, count
CV%, strength, imperfections, yarn appearance, etc. Now-a-days, various
parameters relating to comfort like yarn water absorbency, yarn surface
friction, etc, are also given importance. Thus, in short staple spinning
system, to produce yarn of acceptable quality, the raw material has to be
processed through a sequence of machine. Developments in these machines are
carried out to enhance yarn quality. The machine manufacturers are coming
out with different models of the machines featuring different
modification/innovations, which enhance quality.
Different categories of developments
These developments or innovations can be
divided in different categories:
1. Minor modifications.
2. Modification related to
quality/production monitoring or enhancement in production/speed.
3. Major modifications.
Minor modifications are the simple
alteration of the previous version/model of the machine that has nothing to
do much with the quality or production/speed of the machine. So these
modifications are aimed at just giving the customers a new look to the
machine. Second type of modification relates with enhancement in
production/speed or with the online quality/production monitoring. Major
modifications are really significant modifications, which are helpful in
improving the product quality.
There are the changes that have been
brought in the machine to improve the product quality not only on the same
machine but also at subsequent machines. As so far machine manufacturers are
concerned, they are providing machines with all the above stated categories,
but publicised the machines under the category of major developments though
these developments may be coming under first two categories. These
developments will be analysed in the subsequent section.
To discuss modern developments in
detail, subsequent sections are divided in the categories according to the
machines used to spin the yarn. I.
Developments in blowroom
Main objective of the blowroom is
opening and cleaning of the material without over-stressing or damaging the
fibres. The opening means to increase the specific volume (cc/g) of the feed
material and is adjudged from the tuft size whereas cleaning means to remove
impurities. The tuft size of 2 - 3 mg is considered to be optimum, but as
low as 0.1 mg is achievable. The visual appearance of the
waste extracted at different stages of opening and cleaning is shown in
Figure 1 . Increase in the opening/cleaning intensity
increases waste removal, but also leads to fibre damage, fibre loss and
increase in neps level (Figure 2). Hence it is very important to find out
optimum opening/cleaning. The modern developments in blowroom will be
discussed in the subsequent sections.
1. Difference between types of
plucking roller of automatic bale opener
The trend in Indian spinning mills is
now to replace manual bale opener to automatic bale opener. The automatic
bale opener gives smaller tuft size (Figure 3), thus results in better
opening and cleaning efficiency of the subsequent machines .
The manual bale opening process relies more on the sincerity and efficacy of
the worker, and has more variation in the tuft size fed to the bale opener.
1.1. Rieter Automatic Bale Opener (UNIfloc
Rieter UNIfloc A 11 uses single plucking
roller, called as take-off roller (Figure 4). The take-off roller (Figure 5)
along with narrow grid results in small tufts size . The same
roller can be used for processing cotton as well as man-made fibres. The
roller teeth can also be replaced individually. The automatic bale opener
regularly measures the profile of the lay down material for gradual level
out the bales as shown in Figure 6 .
1.2. Trützschler Automatic Bale
Opener (BLENDOMAT BO-A)
Trützschler's BLENDOMAT BO-A is fitted
with two plucking rollers rotating in opposite direction (Figure 7). But at
any given time, only one plucking roller is working while other is raised
according to the travel direction of the machine (Figures 8 a, b). Thus,
direction reversal of the plucking roller and, hence wear-intensive braking
and acceleration after every passage of the bales is avoided. The plucking
roller strips off the tufts by penetrating into the bale surface while the
three supporting rollers give a firm grip over the bales .
This is what they call 'Penetration inversion mechanism', which ensures
gentle fibre removal and gives good opening. It can process three different
cotton/blend lots simultaneously that can be fed into three separate
cleaning lines as shown in Figure 9 .
1.3. Marzoli Automatic Bale Opener (SuperBlender
Marzoli automatic bale opening Super
Blender B12SB (Figure 10) has two plucking rollers with 254 blades on each
roller, which ensures small flock size . Automatic bale opener
can process four different mixings. The detacher of the bale opener follows
the contour of the lay-down and plucks the raw material down to the ground
(Figure 11). The production, with a working width of 2,250 mm, is stated to
be 1,600 kg/hr.
1.4. Lakshmi Bale Plucking Machine LA
Lakshmi Automatic Bale Plucker LA 17/LA
28 is fitted with twin plucking rollers (Figure 12). The depth of the cut
can be programmed as per the requirement. The varying production rate can be
achieved by varying the traverse speed, depth of cut and the type of grill.
The grills of the plucking rollers are selectable according to the required
tuft size. The plucking roller has replaceable strips with teeth. Thus, in
case of any damage, only that strip can be replaced without removing the
grills or contact rollers, thus reducing downtime. Bale plucker can process
four different assortments at a time and can feed into separate cleaning
2. Compact Blowroom Line (Shorter
Automatic bale opener efficiently makes
the tuft size smaller leading to better opening/cleaning of the subsequent
machines. The modern cleaners give intensive but gentle cleaning. The use of
3 to 4 beaters in series (CVT-4 Cleaner of Trützschler) in the same machine
rather than 2 or 4 machines in tandem in line gives same cleaning. Thus, the
blowroom line becomes shorter without any compromise on the quality of the
2.1 Compact Blowroom Line of
Trützschler compact blowroom line
consists of automatic bale opener, Multi Function Separator along with waste
re-feeding, Pre-Cleaner (CL-P), Integrated Mixer (MX-I with 10 trunks) along
with CLEANOMAT Cleaner (CL-C 4), and Foreign Part Separator (Figure 13). The
compact blowroom requires less space and lower energy consumption in
transporting the fibre tufts to the next machine. The
installation size comparison of normal blowroom line (1,000 kg/h of blowroom
production) against Trützschler compact blowroom (2,000 kg/h production)
has been shown in Figure 14.
2.2 Blowroom Line of Rieter
The Rieter blowroom line consists of
automatic bale opener UNIfloc A 11, intensive pre-cleaner UNIclean B 11,
homogeneous mixer/blender UNImix B 70 and gentle fine cleaner UNIflex B 60
as shown in Figure 15 .
3. Mote knife with suction in place
of grid bars
The trend of using mote knife with an
open slot along suction was initially incorporated on carding in the
pre-carding and post-carding zones. Recently, the same principle was adopted
by Trützschler on cleaning machines in blowroom. Such a cleaning system
consists of deflector blade, mote knife and suction hood (Figure 16). Trash
particles released due to centrifugal forces are separated at the knives and
are continuously taken away by suction keeping the hood clean permanently.
The deflector blade setting depends upon the type of cotton processing.
When processing clean cottons or for low
degree of cleaning, deflector blades can be kept almost closed, but fully
opened for high trashy cotton and/or high degree of cleaning. The blade
adjustment can be made manually or via, motor. It also gives trouble free
processing of sticky cottons as such cotton otherwise sticks to the grid
bars . The removal of dust by suction results into good
running behaviour in OE and ring spinning and gives better yarn quality
4. Multiple beaters instead of single
beater in a single machine
The trend of using multiple
beaters/cleaners in tandem on the same machine has been introduced by
Trützschler. The machine has the combination of clamped and unclamped
feeding of the material to the beaters. The initial feeding of the material
to the first beater is clamped through the feed rollers, thus giving
intensive beating. Subsequently, material is transferred to other beaters in
web form in unclamped manner, thus giving gentle cleaning action.
Gradual increase in the speed of the
beater, clothing fineness and angle of clothing teeth from first to last
beater give progressive cleaning of the material. It is claimed by
manufacturer that multiple beater can replace 3 to 4 conventional blowroom
cleaners . A study was conducted in a spinning mill, where a
conventional blowroom line was replaced with Cleanomat CVT 3. The results
shown in Figure 18 indicate overall improvement in cleaning efficiency and
reduction in yarn imperfections, power consumption along with saving of good
5. Better mixing/blending of raw
The cotton fibre parameters, being a
natural fibre, differ from bale to bale. Thus bales coming from different
stations and/or varieties should be
mixed thoroughly to spin yarn of
consistent quality. Similarly, blending of dissimilar fibres should also be
done properly at blowroom stage. Mix homogeneity depends on the methods of
mixing and type of mixing/blending machine used. When mixing the different
bales in tuft form, smaller the tuft size better would be the homogeneity .
More number of reverse chutes in mixing equipment gives better homogeneity.
Two blenders working in series or tandem produces better homogeneity than
one with similar, total capacity.
5.1 Rieter UNImix B71/B75 blending
Rieter UNImix blending machine claims to
have random distribution of the tufts to the 8 mixing chambers and then the
fibre blending takes place at three different points within the UNImix. This
technology has been termed as a '3-point mixing process' .
The first stage is a controlled time offset of the tuft layers in the mixing
chambers by 90° deflection of the tufts in the tuft storage. The second
mixing point comprises a spiked feed lattice, which picks small tufts at
random out of the layers of the 8 mixing chambers and transports them to the
next mixing point. The third blending level is achieved by mixing of the
fine tufts in the active mixing chamber above the spiked feed lattice
(Figure 19). This results in constant homogeneity of the fibre blend and
constant yarn quality subsequently. Different raw materials can be processed
and required setting can be made via, the control panel during machine
5.2 Rieter UNIblend A 81 Blending
Rieter 'UNIblend A 81' can be used for
multi-component blending. It can precisely measure deviation in fibre
percentage less than 1%, and, thus
avoid colour non-uniformity in the end
product. It can even mix/blend 98% white with 2% black fibres . This
blending machine can mix from two to eight individual components in any
desired ratio. It is also possible to split the line, after the dosing
blender, into four different carding lines, each of which can contain a
different blend ratio of the same components (Figure 20).
5.3 Difference between continuous
dosage and weighing System
In continuous dosage system, different
components are filled into each chute accordingly (Figure 20). Each chute
has an individually, continuously working dosage system. A conveyer belt
transports the evenly sandwich layered material to the compressing/opening
take-off unit. Thus, the each tuft contains all components in right
proportion (Figure 21 a). The blend ratio, in case of continuous dosage
system is maintained, which otherwise varies with weighing pan method
(Figure 21 b)
5.4 Trützschler Multimix MPM
Trützschler mixer can have 6 or 10
trunks depending upon the application. The rotating flaps forward the
material in sequence to the individual
trunks but these trunks are emptied
at the same time resulting in homogeneity of the mix (Figure 22 a). Once all
the trunks are filled, the transport air is routed past the trunks to
prevent material compaction. As soon as the trunks are empty, refilling
starts immediately so that a loose layer of tufts is formed on the conveyor
belt from the individual trunks. At the end of the conveyor belt, material
from all the trunks lies in layers in a sandwich form that ensures ideal
feeding for the CLEANOMAT Cleaner. For better mixing and homogeneity, two
mixers can also be set in tandem (Figure 22 b).
6. Removal of colour contaminants and
The cotton that reaches the mills has
natural as well as other added contaminants. Contaminants and other foreign
parts can either be sorted out manually or with machine. But the advantage
of machine sorting over manual sorting is that this system does not depend
upon the efficacy and sincerity of the worker. Thus, modern blowroom line
incorporates system, which eliminates such impurities. The system is also
equipped with fire-protection devices.
6.1 Barco Cotton Sorter for detection
and removal of contaminants in raw cotton
Cotton Sorter of BarcoVision uses
ultra-fast CCD cameras to detect contaminants from raw cotton in the
blowroom line and then removed by means of high speed air guns. The system
can be installed in an existing blowroom line without adding any fan
capacity to elevate the cotton and drop it through the inspection zone. This
system has a transparent tunnel where cotton is diffusely illuminated in the
inspection zone. The individual tufts are observed by means of 4 high
resolution CCD line scan cameras that acquire images from both the sides
simultaneously, thus enhancing the detection capability (Figure 23).
Contaminants are described as a
deviation in colour and size from raw cotton in terms of contaminant width
(number of pixels) and length (number of scan lines). Tolerances in colour
are defined by means of threshold levels (limits). The objects with a colour
value below this limit is being identified as a contaminant. On the
horizontal X-axis, the number of camera pixels is indicated, whereas the
Y-axis displays the colour level. A value of zero corresponds with black,
whereas 255 means white. The normal cotton is recognised as close to the
white level [15,16].
6.2Trützschler Multi Function
Trützschler Multi Function Separator
SP-MF (Figure 24) is positioned immediately after the automatic bale opener,
and includes fire protection,
heavy part and metal separation along with
dedusting and waste re-feeding. This machine has an integrated
micro-computer control system to control all the functions.
6.3 Rieter Vision Shield, Metal
Shield, Fire Shield and the Combo Shield
Rieter blowroom line is fitted with
Vision Shield, Metal Shield, Fire Shield and the Combo Shield of JOSSI
Systems AG, Switzerland to detect foreign material. The vision shield
detects and eliminates foreign fibres whereas metal shield is for detection
and diversion of any metallic particle (size 2 mm, at velocities of 33 m/s)
through sensor and digital signal processing. Metal Shield can extract
metallic as well as non-magnetic metallic particles hidden inside tufts. The
Fire Shield detects and diverts any incandescent particles like sparks or
embers and immediately shuts down the machine. It evacuates all materials
from the ember infected duct, and activates various alarm functions. The
Combo Shield combines the function of both Metal Shield and Fire Shield.
6.4 Trützschler Foreign Part
Separator SECUROPROP SP-FP
Trützschler's patent-pending process,
Foreign Part Separator SECUROPROP SP-FP, detects coloured as well as white
and transparent particles such as PP or PE foil. Foreign fibres can only be
separated, if these are optically detected. To avoid tiny foreign particles
hiding in or behind the tufts, a fibre web is formed by an opening roll
within the SECUROMAT . A colour camera scans the web on the
surface of the opening roll and on detection of a foreign particle
compressed air impulse of a nozzle blows it into a waste suction device
The distance between the place of
detection and the separating unit is very short, thus ensuring a high
reliability of the separation. SECUROPROP SP-FP uses the physical properties
of plastics, which make them appear coloured in polarized light (Figure 25).
This light is generated in the background of a rectangular fibre channel and
the tufts are scanned by two cameras. These detect the false colours or
contrasts generated by the polarisation in light polypropylene and
transparent or semi-transparent PE foils and can detect contaminants of as
small size as 2 x 2 mm .
6.5 Loptex Optosonic Sorter
The Loptex Optosonic Sorter is equipped
with an Optical Sensor to detect coloured contamination and Acoustic Sensor
for colourless material. The raw material is first passed in front of the
Acoustic Sensor and then the Optical Sensor (Figure 26). The Acoustic Sensor
emits ultrasonic waves and detects any contamination with a compact surface
structure like plastic and reflects these waves into the receiver. The
receiver then triggers the ejection device. The Optical Sensor consists of
standard fluorescent light tubes and photo sensor arrays .
The coloured contaminations reflect less light to the photo sensor arrays,
which then trigger the ejection device thorough pneumatic valves, blowing
them into the waste container.
7. On-line parameter settings
One of the most significant
modernisations, which has been brought in the blowroom line, is the online
setting of opening/cleaning machine parameters like beater speed, distance
between grid bars, distance between grid bars and beater, distance between
beater and feed roller, etc. The cleaning intensity and amount of waste
extracted can be programmed and adjusted while the machine is in production.
7.1 Rieter VarioSet
The opening and cleaning intensity
depends, apart from other parameters, on distance between beater and feed
roller, speed of beater and grid
bars setting. The Rieter VarioSet System
adjusts these parameters while the machine is in running state. The cleaning
intensity (0.0 to 1.0) and relative quantity of waste (1 to 10) are entered
to the VarioSet through the operator's panel or remotely via, the
ABC-Control system. On Rieter UNIclean B12 cleaner, these two parameters,
adjust the beater speed and grid bars setting to get the required level of
waste extracted (Figure 27). In case of Rieter UNIflex B 60 cleaner, the
parameters entered are fibre length, relative amount of waste (1 to 10) and
cleaning intensity (0.0 to 1.0). The staple length of the fibres is
converted for the basic setting of the feed trough nip. The relative amount
of waste primarily adjusts the grid bars setting and the cleaning intensity
adjusts the rotational speed of the beater and the feed trough nip (Figure
7.2 Trützschler WASTECONTROL and
The Trützschler's waste sensor
WASTECONTROL BR-WCT is attached to a Cleaner CLEANOMAT and optically
measures good fibres in the waste and amount of suction for fibres. This
system detects the waste quality and automatically sets the deflector blades
of the cleaner by servo-motors (Figure 29). Thus the degree of cleaning for
each cotton quality can be optimised. The Figure 30 shows the relationship
between the waste extracted and the total amount of waste. Ideally for
example, with cotton having a trash content of 2%, the total waste removed
would be 2%. The degree of cleaning would then be 100% (green line). But the
aim is to achieve optimum cleaning (yellow line). This point represents a
compromise between a high level of cleaning and low fibre loss. It is
claimed that with the CLEANOMAT cleaners, the actual achievable line lies
very close to the theoretical ideal, ie, the good cleaning with minimum good
developments in card
The card is the heart of the spinning
mill because if we see the card sliver, it is just the magnified replica of
the yarn. Quality of yarn is directly
related to the quality of card sliver.
Thus the modern developments, in the carding machine, are carried out to
produce better sliver. The following sections discuss some of the modern
developments in the carding machine.
1. Unidirectional feed Unidirectional
results in gentle fibre treatment
because fibre feed and licker-in rotation is in the same direction. The
latest version of Rieter card C60 (Figure 31) and Trützschler TC 07 (Figure
32) feature with unidirectional feed system.
2. Multiple Licker-in
The concept of using three licker-in
place of one is basically for better cleaning of the feed material. Here the
concept of clamped and unclamped feeding is used. The latest version of
Rieter card (Figure 32) and Trützschler card (Figure 32) feature with
multiple licker-in system. The modular design of Rieter C 60 card makes it
possible to convert from 3 licker-in units to 1 unit.
3. Increase in the carding zone/width
The modern machines achieve production
rates of 60 - 220 kg/h, compared with output of 5 - 15 kg/h in 1970 .
One of the many factors behind increase in the production, without
deteriorating quality, is increase in the carding zone area, particularly
width of the card and/or long carding section.
3.1 Rieter C 60 wide width card
Compare with the previous version of the
card (C 51), Rieter C 60 Card has 50% more working width (from 1 m to 1.5 m)
as shown in Figure 33. The diameter of the cylinder has been reduced (but
RPM is increased) whereas the take-off roller diameter is increased .
Thus, the cylinder can take higher fibre mass, resulting in higher
production without deterioration in carding intensity. An increase in
production is equivalent to increased fibre mass on the cylinder that will
result in poor sliver and yarn quality. But because of more carding width,
the available carding surface is more, hence this enables output to be
increased by 50% without deterioration in sliver or yarn quality.
3.2 Trützschler TC 07 Card with
longest carding section
Trützschler TC 07 has 2.82 m carding
section as shown in Figure 34. The pre-carding area ensures optimal fibre
web preparation for better carding. Better the pre-opening, more intensive
the carding and higher the production .
4. Use of Pre and Post-carding
The opening/individualisation of fibres
achieved by the carding action between the cylinder and the flats is
expressed by the number of wire points per fibre. Higher production rate
decreases wire points per fibre and thus deteriorate carding action. So pre
and post-carding elements are used to achieve better carding action.
4.1 Rieter Pre and Post-carding area
on C 60 Card
Pre-carding zone of Rieter C 60 Card has
6 carding units along with guiding elements and mote knife. The guiding
element and the associated mote knife extract impurities while suctions
hoods take these extracted impurities to centralised waste chamber.
Similarly, post-carding zone has 2 carding elements, one guiding element and
a mote knife are used.
4.2 Trützschler Pre and Post-carding
area on TC 07 Card
Pre-carding zone of Trützschler TC 07
card has 3 carding elements (2 clothing strips each) and 3 cleaning elements
whereas post-carding area has 6 carding segments (12 clothing strips) with 3
cleaning elements. The pre- and post-carding area has total ten elements
Cleaning element, carding element and
control element are standard parts whereas the remaining eight elements can
be flexibly selected according to the required task. Cleaning element has a
mote knife with a suction hood and is designed to separate tiny dirt
particles, seed coat fragments, dust particles, and fibre fragments (Figure
35). Carding element consists of two clothing strips equipped with different
clothing types and finenesses depending on raw material. The control element
is similar to a cleaning element, but it manipulates air-stream on the
cylinder surface thus optimise the function of the cleaning elements. When
none of the elements described above is used in the pre- and post-carding
area, a cover element is mounted.
4.3 Marzoli Pre and Post-carding area
on C601 N Card
The pre-carding zone of Marzoli C601 N
Card has nine carding segments and a knife to eliminate the waste.
The total length of the pre-carding zone is stated to be 720 mm whereas that
of post-carding zone is 550 mm. The post-carding zone has six carding
segments with two suction and knives to eliminate remaining trash.
5. Integrated grinding system
Card wire grinding is not only a
troublesome job but also time consuming. The machine manufacturers are now
coming out with a unique idea of wire grinding on the machine itself while
the machine is in production.
5.1 Rieter Integrated Grinding System
(IGS-Top and IGS-classic)
Rieter IGS-System comes in two versions;
IGS-Classic for cylinder wire grinding and IGS-Top for flat wire grinding.
IGS-Classic has a grindstone, which moves across the cylinder under
automatic control during production (Figure 36). This process is performed
400 times during the planned lifecycle of the clothing as compared with
every 80 to 100 tonnes in case of manual grinding . This results in
better quality in terms of reduction in neps and trash of card sliver .
IGS-Top is installed permanently over the returning flats after the flats
cleaning unit and it performs automatically more than 100 grinding cycles
per clothing lifecycle. The flats rods are raised one after the other by
spring force and pressed against the rotating grinding brush (Figure 36).
Short, hard bristles grind the flat points while longer, softer bristles
keep the later edges sharp. IGS-System gives prolonged cylinder clothing
life to the tune of 10 to 20% .
6. Use of Autoleveller
To control card sliver count variations,
count CV% and unevenness, modern cards are equipped with autoleveller.
6.1 Rieter medium and long term
autoleveller on C 60 card
Medium-term leveller of Rieter C 60 card
measures the feed mat thickness at the feed trough and, as required, the
feed roller speed is adjusted through the control system (Figure 37).
Similarly, long-term leveller measures the sliver thickness by the step
roller pair and adjusts the chute system accordingly.
6.2 Trützschler short-wave and
long-wave autolevelling system
For the short-term autolevelling, the
Integral Feed Tray SENSOFEED of Trützschler TC 07 card constantly scans the
thickness of the tuft web and the required adjustment in the speed of the
feed roll is made through the card control system (Figure 38). Similarly,
long-term autoleveller measures the sliver mass through the sensor in the
card's sliver trumpet and controls the speed of the feed roller accordingly.
A single sensor can be used for the entire card sliver counts.
6.3 Marzoli Short Term and Medium
Term Levelling System
The short term leveller senses the web
thickness (weight) through the load cell. When the web weight exceeds by
±10% of its basic, the sliver draft is adjusted via, microcomputer (Figure
39 a). This system functions over a sliver length as low as 4 cm. The MT
leveller senses the mat thickness (weight) and varies card draft as required
(Figure 39 b). This system functions over a sliver length as low as 1 m
7. Online flats setting and Licker-in
All the major machine manufacturers are
improving the card with manual or motorized reproducible setting of
licker-in mote knife and fats. The setting can be optimised while the
machine is in running conditions.
7.1 Rieter flat and licker-in setting
The C 60 Card of Rieter has a central
flat setting system to adjust and reproduce the flats setting precisely. The
licker-in under casing is also fitted with adjustable knife (manually or
electronically) to alter the setting. Thus the optimal trash removal at the
licker-in during the card production can be determined.
7.2 Trützschler precision setting
and measuring system (PMS, PFS and TC-FCT)
Precision Knife Setting (PMS) System of
Trützschler Card adjusts the distance of the knife to the needle points and
clamping point between feed roll and needle roll to alter the degree of
cleaning. The knife setting can be adjusted manually or through motor while
the carding is running and can be seen through the transparent suction ducts
(Figure 40 a). Similarly Precision Flat Setting (PFS) System adjusts the
flat-cylinder gauge manually or through motor (Figure 40 b). A scale fitted
on the frame shows the actual setting. The Flat Measuring System (FLATCONTROL
TC-FCT) is used to measure the distance between cylinder and flat. For
measurements, three regular flats are removed with measuring flat as shown
in Figure 40 c.
7.3 Marzoli C601 N Card with
deflector blade to adjust droppings
The licker-in undercasing of Marzoli
C601 N Card has mote knives, carding segments, deflector blade and suction
hoods . The deflector blade can be adjusted to adjust the
licker-in droppings as shown in Figure 41 .
8. Online neps monitoring
Trützschler NEP CONTROL TC-NCT monitors
the card web during production and provides information regarding neps in
card sliver. An optical electronic camera films the web under the take-off
roll approximately 20 times per second (Figure 42). The camera moves about
the whole working width of the card in a special, fully closed profile. The
computer attached to the profile, evaluates the pictures with special
analysis software, and indicates neps, trash particles and seed coat
fragments in the card web.
9. Integrated draw frames
Now-a-days, the cards are available with
integrated 3-over-3 drafting. Such cards are able to reduce one draw frame
passage, particularly for low demand yarn or for OE spinning.
9.1 Rieter RSB Coiler for C 60 card
Rieter C 60 card can either be fitted
with RSB series of coiler or SB series of coiler. The RSB coiler is
essentially a complete autoleveller draw frame for sliver weight > 6.6
ktex at 120 kg/h whereas non-levelling SB series coiler is for a lighter
sliver (3.5 - 6 ktex) at high production rates. The auto-leveller version is
used for the OE direct process application.
9.2 Trützschler Integrated Draw
Frame IDF with Card TC 07
Similarly, Trützschler can also supply
Integrated Draw Frame IDF with Card TC 07 and claims to eliminate one draw
frame passage, particularly for rotor spinning. This levelling draw frame
has 3 over 3 two-zone drafting system with a draft of 3-fold and delivery
speeds 500 m/min (maximum).
10. Trützschler Magnotop system
Trützschler MAGNOTOP System uses high
energy 'Superstrong neodymium magnets' to hold the clothing strips on the
flat bars. One neodymium magnet, smaller than a cigarette pack, can hold or
lift a weight of 100 kg. . The strong magnetic force exceeds the carding
force by a multiple, thus keeps the strips exactly in place (Figure 43).
When mounting conventional flat tops to the flat bars, the clothing strips
are inevitably subject to deformation and thus grinding is necessary to get
evenness that can be eliminated with MAGNOTOP. Strips can simply be peeled
off from the side and removed with little effort in the card itself for
replacement purpose. This significantly reduces the card mounting time from
14 hours to less than 2 hours.
11. Trützschler carding setting
measurement system T-Con
Higher card productions result in higher
heat, so increase in card temperature. The increase in temperature leads to
different expansions of the machine parts, thus disturbing the card
settings. T-Con calculates the distance of the carding elements objectively,
based on various measuring values under production conditions (Figure 44 a).
The various settings displayed on the card monitor include the flat-cylinder
gauge, fixed carding segments, cylinder gauge, etc, and hence these settings
can be optimised (Figure 44 b). T-Con also registers even slightest contacts
of the clothing and shuts down the card long before damage can occur and
protects against clothing damages.
Developments in draw frame
As far as draw frame is concerned, not
much significant developments have been carried out, except one or two that
will be discussed in the following section. All the machine manufacturers
are supplying the draw frame with almost same kind of specifications (Table
Table .1 Specifications of different makes of Draw
Lakshmi Machine Works Lts 
Rieter Machine works Ltd 
Vouk spa 
TOYOTA Textile Machinery 
Trützschler GmbH & Co. 
LR SB 851
Delivery speed (max)
3-over-3 With pressure bar
4-over-3 With pressure bar
3-over-4 With pressure bar
3-over-3 With pressure bar
4-over-3 With pressure bar
3.05 to 11.6
4.5 to 11.6
4 to 11.6
4 to 14
4 to 11
Spring or hydraulic
No of deliveries
Single or twin (LD0/6)
Single or twin (SB)
Single or twin (Duomax)
Single or twin
Can system (delivery)
(round or rectangulatr cans)
(round or rectangulatr cans)
Particular Lakshmi Machine works Ltd.
 Rieter Machine works Ltd.  Vouk spa TOYOTA Textile Machinery
 Model LR SB 851 RSB Unimax DX8 TD 03 Delivery Speed (max.) 800
m/min. 1100 m/min. 1050 m/min. 1000 m/min. 1000 m/min. Drafting System
3-over- 3 With pressure bar 4-over- 3 With pressure bar 3-over-4 With
pressure bar 3-over-3 With pressure bar 4-over-3 with pressure bar Draft
Range 3.5 to 11.6 4.5 to 11.6 4 to 11.6 4 to 14 4 to 11 Roller loading
Pneumatic Pneumatic Spring or hydraulic Spring Pneumatic Autoleveller Yes
Yes Yes Yes Yes No. of Deliveries Single or twin (LD0/6) Single or twin (SB)
Single or twin (duomax) Single or twin Single Can system (Delivery) Auto
doffing (Round cans) Auto doffing (Round or Rectangular cans) Auto doffing
(Round cans) Auto doffing (Round cans) Auto doffing (Round or Rectangular
1. Auto break-draft setting
Incorrect break draft increases yarn U%,
imperfections and neps whereas the total draft does not affect yarn quality
much. Break draft plays a very significant role in yarn quality, thus must
be set correctly.
1.1 Trützschler TD 03 draw frame
with AUTO DRAFT Technology
AUTO DRAFT of Trützschler TD 03 draw
frame optimises break draft of draw frame under the prevailing conditions.
It estimates the corresponding values of the break draft merely in one
minute and takes important parameters, like fibre-fibre friction, fibre to
metal friction, etc, into consideration while calculating the break draft
2. CLEANcoil by Rieter
The deposition of spin finish on the
underside of the coiler plate of draw frame when processing MMF leads to
displacement of the sliver layer in can. To avoid this, the coiler has to be
cleaned frequently resulting in production loss. Rieter has patented a
coiler plate that has honeycomb like surface and claimed to reduce cleaning
frequency from 2 to 3 hours to 1 - 7 days depending upon the type and
quantity of finishing agents as shown in Figure 46.
1. K R Salhotra: Significance of Modern
Developments in Blowroom, NCUTE Pilot Program on Spinning-Blowroom and
Carding, IIT Delhi, Oct 9-11,1998
2. Blowroom System: Variations on Success, Rieter Textile System Information
3.UNIfloc A 11: Efficient Cleaning Starts with Small Tufts, Rieter Textile
System Information Brochure.
4. Hans Roosli: Rieter Blowroom and Carding - The Choice for Success in The
New Millennium, Rieter Textile System Information Brochure.
5. Rajendra Ghatage: Modern Concept in Blowroom and Carding, NCUTE --
Program on Latest Textile Machinery Used Globally, D K T E, Ichalkaranji.
6. Fibre+Sliver Technology, Trützschler GmbH & Co KG
Textilmaschinenfabrik, Information Brochure.
7. Blowroom Machines, Marzoli Spa, Information Brochure.
8. Spinning Value: Lakshmi Automatic Bale Plucker LA 17/LA 28, Lakshmi
Machine Works Ltd Information Brochure.
9. Blow-Room Machines, Trützschler GmbH & Co KG Textilmaschinenfabrik,
10. Installations for Fibre Preparation, Trützschler GmbH & Co KG
Textilmaschinenfabrik, Information Brochure.
11. R Chattopadhyay: Quality Consideration in Blowroom, NCUTE Pilot Program
on Spinning-Blowroom and Carding, IIT Delhi, Oct 9-11, 1998.
12.UNImix B 70 Blending Machine: Unique Blending Technology, Rieter Textile
System, Information Brochure.
13.Rieter -- the Frontrunner in Summer 2008 and Beyond, Press Release April
28, 2008, Rieter Machine Works Ltd, Winterthur.
14. Rieter 2000: Blowroom and Carding, Rieter Textile System Information
15. Barco CottonSorter, BARCO-Loepfe Srl, Italy Information Brochure.
16. Cotton Sorter, BarcoVision, Belgium Information Brochure.
17. Specialists Form Bale to Sliver, Trützschler GmbH & Co KG
Textilmaschinenfabrik, Information Brochure.
18. Loptex Optosonic Sorter Digit +, Loptex SrL, Italy Information brochure.
19. Report on Experience with the Rieter C 60 Card, Link -- The Customer
Magazine of Rieter Spun Yarn Systems, Vol 19/No: 51, December 2007.
20. C 60 Card -- a New Dimension in Carding, Link -- The Customer Magazine
of Rieter Spun Yarn Systems, Vol 14/No: 30, Dec 2002.
21. The C 60- Card Technology and Flexibility for the Future, Link --The
Customer Magazine of Rieter Spun Yarn Systems, Vol 16/No: 43, Sept 2004.
22.Trützschler TC 07, Trützschler GmbH & Co KG Textilmaschinenfabrik,
23.The New Concept of Spinning Mill has Taken Shape, Marzoli spa, Italy
24. www.marzoli.it (English translation of Italian version).
25. IGS-System: For Consistent Carding Quality, Rieter Textile System,
26. C 501 -- High Production Card, Marzoli Spa, Italy Information Brochure.
27. Spinning Value: Autoleveller Draw Frame LRSB 851, Lakshmi Machine Works
Ltd, Information Brochure.
28. Draw Frames: Drawing in Perfection, Rieter Textile System, Information
29. Unimax: Single Delivery Draw frame, Vouk Spa, Information Brochure.
30. Draw Frame DX8, Toyota Textile Machinery Division, Information Brochure.
31. Draw Frame TD 03, Trützschler GmbH & Co KG Textilmaschinenfabrik,
32. The New RSB-D 40 Autoleveller Draw Frame -- A Firework Display of
Innovations, Link -- The Customer Magazine of Rieter Spun Yarn Systems, Vol
17/No: 46, Sept 2005.
Reeti Pal Singh Department of
Textile Engineering, GZS College of Engg and Technology, Bathinda 151001. V
K Kothari Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology,
New Delhi 110016.